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Glossary

abacus seat forming the uppermost member or division of the capital on a column

Abydos ware Early Bronze Age II pottery of Syro-Palestinian origin, mainly “metallic” jugs and jars; red slipped and burnished or painted with geometric motifs; also found in First and Second Dynasty tombs in Egypt

acanthus ornamentation suggesting the leaves of the acanthus, a prickly Mediterranean herb; a common motif in Greco-Roman and Byzantine art and architecture (see Corinthian order)

Achaemenid Persian ruling dynasty from the reign of Cyrus the Great (559 BCE) to the overthrow of Darius III (331 BCE)

Achzib ware part of the Phoenician red slip pottery group of Iron Age II; mainly jugs with trefoil or “mushroom” rims, red slipped and highly burnished; the types spread to many Phoenician colonies in the Mediterranean Basin

acropolis fortified upper part of a city (see also citadel), generally containing the religious, political, and/or administrative center

acroterium(-ia) ornamental finial at the apex or outer angles of a roof

adyton inner sanctuary of a temple

aedicula(-ae) architectural niche; small shrine

Aesclepius (Asculapius, Esclepius) Greek and Roman god of medicine

agora place of assembly, marketplace; a city’s economic and civic center (see also forum)

agoranomos Greek magistrate who oversaw the sale of provisions and the weights in the marketplace

alabaster variety of gypsum, usually white or translucent but sometimes other shades, used in antiquity to produce vessels, statues, and other objects

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