Biblical Archaeology Review 34:5, September/October 2008

Strata: In History

BAR takes a look back at some important events in history that happened during the months of September and October.

September 7, 1191 A.D. Richard I of Britain defeats Saladin at the battle of Arsuf during the Third Crusade.

September 7/8, 70 A.D. Titus and his legions plunder Jerusalem, effectively ending the First Jewish Revolt though some rebels held out against the Romans at the fortress of Masada until 73 A.D.

September 12, 1940 A.D. Four teenagers discover the Lascaux cave paintings, with artwork dating to the Paleolithic period (15,000–13,000 B.C.).

September 26, 1687 A.D. During the bombardment of the Acropolis by Venetian forces, a gunpowder explosion destroys a significant portion of the Parthenon, which had been remarkably well preserved until then.

October 1, 331 B.C. Alexander the Great defeats Achaemenid king Darius III at the battle of Gaugamela, a massive victory for the Macedonians, who ultimately conquered all of Persia less than a year later.

October 13, 1988 A.D. The archbishop of Turin, Italy, announces that carbon-14 dating indicates that the Shroud of Turin dates only to the Middle Ages, though the origins of the shroud remain controversial.

October 25, 1529 A.D. Henry VIII of England dismisses Thomas Cardinal Wolsey for his failure to legitimize Henry’s affair with Anne Boleyn and designates Sir Thomas More as lord chancellor in his place one day later.

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